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A Snapshot Survey on Location-Aware Systems

Hedda Rahel Schmidtke


Location-awareness is both a producer of geospatial Big Data and a consumer of geospatial data. Applications both collect data and through spatial analysis and connection to services provides value to users. This value is what motivates users to share data as volunteered geographic information (VGI). Several previous surveys on location-based services with varying foci exist. However, the market ecosystem today has considerably changed as has the academic landscape with the increasing proliferation of big data analytics, data science, and Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. This survey discusses location-aware systems from a 2018 perspective with a secondary focus on GIS. Especially, the mobile area has changed considerably over the last decade. We start by discussing the value of location data, both in terms of business opportunities and in terms of privacy concerns. We then look at applications, which are still mainly in tourism and navigation, in the public interest, and in entertainment, but with the new addition of business and business process modeling in enterprise resource planning (ERP) gaining importance. We then look at architectures and implementation variants and finally discuss modeling and representation. We conclude the paper with a discussion of topics of particular interest for researchers and highlight the areas of distributed WebGIS architectures in 5G edge computing, of GIS-ERP integration with IoT devices on the application side, and of widening the focus from location-awareness to context-awareness and place-awareness in representation and modeling.

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